What languages might come to replace them? Here’s my list of challengers…
Thanks to the Flutter framework and Google’s imprimatur, this language has quickly risen in popularity. It’s similar to the same driving force that made Ruby so popular: the Rails framework.
And if Google’s Fuchsia takes off, Dart will be in the centre of it.
Elixir is an Erlang-derivative with an improved syntax and the same, amazing support for concurrency. As a pure functional language, it has a good likelihood of elevating this paradigm into the mainstream.
Another Google-supported language, Golang has proven to be winner, thanks to its lightning-quick compilation speed, easy and efficient concurrency, and remarkable simplicity. The only thing missing is generics, and this feature is on the roadmap.
Julia’s strength is its excellent support for mathematical computation. The math-friendly syntax is great for data scientists. If any language can overthrow Python, this one is definitely a contender.
Kotlin is the better Java. In fact, it’s practically a drop-in replacement for Java. Google have already made it a first-class language for Android development.
Pharo is a modern variant of Smalltalk, a remarkably productive object-oriented language. In fact, Smalltalk is the paragon of OOP and has inspired nearly every other OOP language on the planet. In the end, no language does OOP better than Smalltalk.
Pharo is also one of the simplest, most elegant languages in the world.
Rust has gained recognition for its memory safety feature: the borrow checker. This feature practically eliminates the entire class of memory-related programming errors. Rust promises much safer programming.
WebAssembly is a dark horse. In the next decade or so, it could possibly spawn a number of languages that rise to the top. WebAssembly is only a compilation target, but there’s no reason it couldn’t spread far beyond the web domain. What WebAssembly-based language(s) could rise to the top? It’s anybody’s guess.